What is formwork?
Formwork is an auxiliary structure widespread in modern construction in the form of a mold for laying and holding the base material (concrete, reinforced concrete, soil mixture). Formwork construction is the basis of monolithic housing construction and modern construction of industrial facilities.
Formwork can be both temporary and permanent (non-removable). Available in a variety of materials including cardboard, wood, steel, and aluminum. Modern formwork systems consist of load-bearing, shaping, supporting structures and fasteners. Their purpose is to provide the design characteristics of monolithic structures, i. e. to give them the shape, the required geometric dimensions, the position in space determined by the architectural parameters and the structure of the surface of the concrete filler.
The formwork strength is characterized by the rigidity, resistance to design process loads and possible deformation from pressure created during laying and compaction of the concrete mixture.
The history of construction formwork dates back to the ancient era (3rd to 2nd centuries BC). Wooden formwork was widely used by the ancient Romans after the appearance of the so-called “rubble stone”, which went down in history also under the name “Roman concrete”. It was a building mixture intended for filling cavities of load-bearing walls with it. The mixture consisted of washed sand, crushed stone and binder, such as lime with artificial or natural ceramic additives. The method used for obtaining the mixture did not differ much from the modern ones and was based on grinding the components, adding water and mixing until maximum homogeneity, pouring the mixture into the formwork, and tamping. Temporary scaffolding and formwork were erected to form the structure. The Romans used both removable and permanent formwork made of bricks or blocks of stone.
Since concrete is quite resistant to compressive loads but has a relatively low tensile or torsional strength, early Roman structures consisted of arches, vaults, and domes. The most notable concrete structure of that period is the Pantheon located in the Italian capital. Along with other Roman buildings, it is a striking example of a domed-arched ceiling system and an important step in its further development. Over time, wooden stringers and beams were replaced with aluminum and steel, making the formwork method more systematic and reusable.
There are several types of formwork:
- traditional wooden formwork,
- disposable cardboard formwork,
- reusable plastic formwork,
- non-removable insulated formwork,
- flexible formwork,
- formwork systems made of prefabricated modules with a metal frame.
TECHNOCOM-BM specializes in the production of the last of the listed types of formwork due to its versatility and ability to withstand high loads required for use on large-scale industrial facilities, large housing construction projects and transport infrastructure.
By the intended purpose, formwork is is divided into floor, column, wall, pole formwork and formwork for other elements of building structures. By design, formwork is divided mainly into girder and frame formwork.
Modern construction formwork in Russia is standardized by GOST 34329-2017. By Order of the Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology No. 1954-st dated December 14, 2017, the interstate standard GOST 34329-2017 was put into effect as a national standard of the Russian Federation, effective from April 1, 2018.